Pomeranian
Pomeranian (Photo: Adobe Stock)
helloBARK! staff
By helloBARK! staff
Updated on July 18, 2019

Pomeranians are a Spitz breed that come from the Pomerania region in northern Poland and Germany.

Although Poms are best known as fluffly, little red dogs that don’t look too dissimilar to foxes, they come in a variety of different colors and patterns.

These adorable dogs have a double coat – an inner and an outer coat – to protect against cold weather conditions.

Pomeranians are usually moderately active dogs that can excel in activities such as agility and obedience training.

The American Kennel Club ranks Pomeranians as the 23rd most popular breed in the world.

In this article, we’re going to take a look at the origins of Pomeranians, their size, personalities and temperaments, as well as life span and health problems.

We’ll break this article up into the following sections:

• What is a Pomeranian?
• Pomeranian Facts, History and Origin
• Is my dog a Pomeranian or a Spitz?
• Pomeranian breed standard
• Pomeranian Size
• Pomeranian Colors
• Are Pomeranians aggressive?
• Do Pomeranians make good pets?
• Are Pomeranian easy to train?
• How do you potty train a Pomeranian?
• Do Pomeranians bark a lot?
• Can a Pomeranian stay alone?
• How long should I walk my Pomeranian?
• What do Pomeranian eat?
• How long do Pomeranians live in human years?
• What health problems do Pomeranians have?
• Do Pomeranians like the cold?
• Are Pomeranians hypoallergenic?
• How often do Pomeranians shed?
• Pomeranian grooming and haircut
• Pomeranian eye stain
• How much money does a Pomeranian cost?
• How much is a mini Pomeranian?
• Pomeranian Adoption and Rescue
• Pomeranian Cross and Mix Breeds
• Pomeranian on Instagram
• Anything else to consider?
• In conclusion

With the introduction over, let’s take a deep dive into the Pomeranian breed.

What is a Pomeranian?

Pomeranian is a Spitz breed that is a member of the AKC’s Toy Group.

They’re best known as Pomeranians but can also be called Pom, Pom Pom, Zwergspitz, Zwers, Spitz Enano, Spitz Main, Deustche Spitze and Loulou.

Pomeranian Facts, History and Origin

Pomeranians were thought to be related to large working dogs in Arctic regions. They’re often referred to a type of dog called Wolfspitz or Spitz.

Their name is considered to be a reference to the region of Pomerania, which is located in the northern Poland and Germany along the Baltic sea.

According to the American Kennel Club, the ancestors of Pomeranians were bred down from their bigger and burlier cousins in Pomerania.

Pomeranians are the smallest of the Spitz breeds. Other members include the Akita, Alaskan Malamute, German Spitz, Norwegian Lundehund and the Samoyed.

Wikipedia credits Queen Charlotte and King George III of England as having brought two Pomeranians to England in 1767. These dogs were called Phoebe and Mercury.

The AKC state that Queen Charlotte’s granddaughter Queen Victoria became smitten with the breed while visiting Florence, Italy. The second-longest reigning British monarch returned with some Poms of her own.

Wikipedia, however, suggests it was Queen Charlotte – as opposed to Queen Victoria – who brought the first Pomeranians to England.

Irrespective, Queen Victoria established a kennel and displayed the Spitz breed to ensure they attracted them worldwide notoriety.

In fact, she was thought to be partly responsible for their diminishing size as she imported smaller members of the breed. The monarch was attributed for decreasing their size by 50 per cent.

In 1891, the first Pomeranian club was founded in England. The breed was registered in America to the American Kennel Club in 1898.

In modern society, Pomeranians remain in vogue. They’re the 23rd most popular dog breed in the United States, according to AKC.

Is my dog a Pomeranian or a Spitz?

As we’ve already touched upon, Pomeranians are considered a Spitz breed. The Spitz dogs were bred to either hunt, herd or pull sleds.

They were given the name Spitz due to their pointed ears and muzzles, which mirrored the appearance of Wolves. The Spitz breeds can often have a tail that curls over the dogs back or droops.

Pomeranian breed standard

The AKC breed standard reads as follows:

The Pomeranian is a compact, short-backed, active toy dog of Nordic descent. The double coat consists of a short dense undercoat with a profuse harsh-textured longer outer coat. The heavily plumed tail is one of the characteristics of the breed. It is set high and lies flat on the back. He is alert in character, exhibits intelligence in expression, is buoyant in deportment, and is inquisitive by nature. The Pomeranian is cocky, commanding, and animated as he gaits. He is sound in composition and action.

Pomeranian Size

Queen Victoria is often attributed to reducing the size of these dogs from their 30 pound ancestors to their current size and weight.

Pomeranians tend to grow to a height of between six and seven inches (15 to 17 cm). These lively dogs usually weigh between three and seven pounds (1.3 to 3 kg).

Poms should be compact but sturdy dogs with a fluffy, textured coat and a highly plumed tail that is set high and flat.

They’re members of the AKC’s Toy Group given their small size.

Pomeranian Colors

A Pomeranian pack (Photo: Adobe Stock)
A Pomeranian pack (Photo: Adobe Stock)

Pomeranians can come in a variety of different colors.

The AKC outline that ‘all colors, patterns, and variations there-of are allowed and must be judged on an equal basis’. They go on state that there are almost two dozen colors, various patterns and markings.

The color of Poms include but is not limited to: white, black, brown, red, orange, cream, blue, sable, black and tan, brown and tan, spotted, brindle, and parti.

However, the most common color tends to be orange or red.

Are Pomeranians aggressive?

Pomeranians are usually described as companion dogs. Hence, they’ve bred to be small dogs accustomed to human company and interaction.

However, as with any breed, there is a potential for a Pom to be aggressive towards people or other animals. If you’re concerned about a Pomeranian’s aggression – or any dog – you should contact an experienced and reputation dog trainer for help.

To give a Pom the best chance of being a well-balanced dog, you should train them from a young age as well as take them to socialisation classes to get them used to meeting new dogs and people.

Do Pomeranians make good pets?

Pomeranians have a cute appearance that earn them comparisons to a teddy bear. They’re usually friendly dogs that become very attached to their owners.

They like to be affectionate and are considered loyal pets. The breed is thought to be social and should get along with other people and pets. We recommend working on this when your Pomeranian is a pup.

If you’re looking for a family pet that can act as a guard dog, this breed probably isn’t a good fit. However, Poms are considered excellent watchdogs. They’re alert to their territory, whether it be the family home or the garden/yard.

Are Pomeranian easy to train?

As with any dog, you should start training your Pomeranian from a young age to teach it basic obedience. You may want to enrol your Pom in some puppy manners classes.

The Spitz breed are smart dogs that usually display a willingness to learn. Although Spitz breeds do have a reputation for being stubborn dogs, they’re connection to their humans means that there should also be a eagerness to please.

How do you potty train a Pomeranian?

When you enter ‘Pomeranian potty training’ into Google, nearly one million results come up. It suggests that some Pom owners have struggled with this issue.

Some websites claim that Pomeranians are harder to train – like other toy-sized dogs – due to their small bladders, meaning they’ve got to go more often.

Potty training requires consistency, patience and time. Should it still be an issue after 16-20 weeks, you may want to enrol the help of an experienced dog trainer.

Do Pomeranians bark a lot?

Pomeranians have a reputation for being yappy dog.

The Pom breed tend to use their bark or yap as a key way to communication with their owners, people or other dogs.

According to Pomeranian.org, they’ll bark if they’re happy, excited, sad, bored, seeking attention or responding to other animals. A sharp, loud bark could denote some perceived danger.

If you’re worried about your Pom’s excessive barking, you could contact your breeder for some advice or help. You could also contact a local dog trainer for help with the issue.

Just remember that a dog rarely barks for no reason. It’s their voice to communicate with you or other pets.

Can a Pomeranian stay alone?

Pomeranians, like other toy breeds such as Alaskan Klee Kai, are known to suffer with separation anxiety.

Separation anxiety is triggered when dogs become upset because of separation from their guardians, the people they’re attached to.

Symptoms of separation anxiety include persistent barking, whining or howling, destructive chewing or digging. In some extreme cases, a dog may urinate or defecate inside the home.

A Pom could also attempt to escape which could lead to self injury or damage to exit points such as the windows and doors.

If you’re worried about your dog’s separation anxiety, you may want to purchase a dog camera with two-way audio and a HD camera so you can talk to your Pom and provide some reassurance.

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Alternatively, you could try aromatherapy, relaxing music, leaving the radio or television on. You could also leave for shorter periods before gradually increasing the period of anxiety.

How long should I walk my Pomeranian?

As a Spitz breed, Pomeranians are usually quite an active dog breed. Like we mentioned further up this article, Spitz breeds were usually bred to hunt, herd or pull sleds.

So you won’t be surprised to learn that Poms need regular daily exercise. As a general rule, Pomeranians will enjoy the opportunity to run or play in the garden, yard or dog park. They’ll benefit from regular walks to keep them physically and mentally stimulated.

According to WagWalking, Poms will require a moderate amount of daily exercise that equates to 40 minutes a day or five miles a week.

What do Pomeranian eat?

First of all, if you’ve got any questions about what diet you should be feeding your Pomeranian, contact your breeder. They’ll usually have some useful advice about what food to give your Pom. You may want to stick with the same grub that the breeder uses to ensure a smooth transition for your Pomeranian puppy.

You can also speak to your local vet to get their advice on what type of diet your Pom should eat.

Crucially, any changes you make to your dog’s diet should be done gradually to avoid any potential stomach issues. Especially given their small size, Pomeranians can have sensitive stomachs.

WagWalking suggest an active Pomeranian should have two meals a day, amounting to between a ¼-½ cup of food for both meals.

How long do Pomeranians live in human years?

Pomeranians have an average lifespan of around 12 to 16 years.

According to PetPom, the oldest Pomeranian was Coty, who lived to the ripe age of 21 years, eight months and 13 days.

What health problems do Pomeranians have?

The AKC describe Pomeranians as “generally healthy little dogs”. However, the Spitz breed do suffer from some health conditions.

For example, Pomeranians could be susceptible to luxating patellas. This occurs when the kneecap slips out of place due to the malformation of the bone or from an injury.

Another potential issue is a tracheal collapse. The trachea (windpipe) is supported by cartilage rings. If injured, it could result in a collapsed trachea, something which is more prevalent in small dogs.

Canine cataracts is a common problem in smaller dogs. It could develop at any age. Symptoms include change in eye color or swelling/redness in the eyes.

A health condition associated with Pomeranians is Severe Hair Loss Syndrome (SHLS). It usually occurs with male Poms. The coat will gradually start to think starting from the back of the thighs before moving to the back.

Other health problems include Entropion, Mono/Bilateral Cryptorchidism, Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease, allergies and epilepsy.

Do Pomeranians like the cold?

Pomeranians are thought to be related to ancient Spitz breeds found in the Arctic region. Therefore, on paper, they should be adept to cold conditions.

The breed have a double coat – a thick under coat and a coarse outer coat. The outer coat should be coarse and straight to protect them against the cold weather.

Are Pomeranians hypoallergenic?

A hypoallergenic dog is one that is less likely to trigger an allergic reaction. There is no such thing as a completely hypoallergenic breed but some dogs are more suited to allergy suffers than others.

For instance, a Poodle or Poodle mixes like a Goldendoodle (Golden Retriever Poodle mix) or a Bordoodle (Border Collie Poodle mix) are usually considered to be a hypoallergenic dog.

However, a Pomeranian isn’t a hypoallergenic dog breed.

How often do Pomeranians shed?

Although Pomeranians are fluffy-looking dogs, they’re considered moderate shedders rather than heavy shedding dogs.

They’re seasonal shedders so they’ll usually shed at the changing of the seasons. The amount of shedding could vary from Pom to Pom.

According to Pomeranian.org, some Pomeranians will do a complete shed during the 12 to 18 month period.

Pomeranian grooming and haircut

Pomeranian ready for her flight (Photo: Adobe Stock)
Pomeranian ready for her flight (Photo: Adobe Stock)

It’s a good idea to brush a Pom around twice a week to remove dead hair and debris from their lavish coats. It’ll also help to distribute the natural oils that their skin omits, as well as help their undercoat to fully shed.

Some Pom owners may opt to bring their Pomeranian to a groomer on a regular basis to give their coat a trim.

The AKC suggest a trip to the groomers to do a full groom every four to six weeks, including a bath, brushing, ears, nails, and anal glands.

Pomeranian eye stain

An issue that can effect some Poms are tear stains.

Of course, the lighter the coat color the more prominent the tear stains will be. It could be caused by a variety of different issues.

If you’re concerned or have questions about a Pomeranian’s tear stain, you should contact your breeder or your vet for advice.

Some home remedies you might like to try include giving your dog bottled or distilled water or a half teaspoon of coconut oil.

How much money does a Pomeranian cost?

Pomeranians can vary in price from breeder to breeder. It can also depend on the color of your Pom.

Usually, a Pomeranian will cost between $500 and $1500. Some Pomeranians may cost as much as $4000.

How much is a Mini Pomeranian or Teacup Pomeranian?

A Mini Pomeranian or Teacup Pomeranian can often cost more than a normal-sized Pomeranian. They’ll usually be priced at around $1000 but they could be more expensive.

Pomeranian Adoption and Rescue

Before you contact a Pomeranian breeder, you could search out your local Pomeranian adoption or rescue centre.

The American Pomeranian Club have a list of regional rescue organisations that you can check out here.

Pomeranian breeders and puppies

If you’re looking for an established and reputable Pomeranian breeder, the AKC recommend checking out the American Pomeranian Club’s website.

We never recommend purchasing a Pomeranian puppy – or any poppy – at a pet shop, online or through a third party breeder.

Pomeranian Cross and Mix Breeds

Pomsky is a cross breed between a Husky and Pomeranian (Photo: Adobe Stock)
Pomsky is a cross breed between a Husky and Pomeranian (Photo: Adobe Stock)

Pomeranians have been crossed with a number of different breeds to create a designer or hybrid dog.

For instance, the Pomsky is perhaps the most famous Pomeranian mix. It’s a cross between a Pomeranian and a Siberian Husky.

Other mixes include:

• Pomeranian + Chihuahua = Pomchi
• Pomeranian + Toy Poodle = Pomapoo
• Pomeranian + Maltese = Maltipom

Pomeranian on Instagram

Pomeranians are popular dogs on social media platforms, such as Instagram. In fact, Jiffpom is the most followed dog in the world on social media. The Pomeranian has a staggering nine million followers.

Other famous Pom accounts on the photo-sharing app include:

1) Mocha the Pomeranian (@mochapom_)

2) Pixxel The Pomeranian (@pixxel_the_pom)

3) Cupcake & Pumpkin (@cupcake.the.pom)

4) BIG POM FAMILY (@bigpomfamily)

5) Jiffpom (@jiffpom)

Anything else to consider?

Pomeranians have a number of different names, including Loulou and Dwarf Spitz.

They’re thought to be related to the following dog breeds: Norwegian Elkhound, German Spitz, Samoyed, American Eskimo Dog and Schipperke.

Poms are known to excel at canine activities such as agility training and sports, obedience training as well as being used as therapy dogs.

In conclusion

So there you have it, we’ve reached the end of our introduction to the Pomeranian breed.

These little dogs are a Spitz breed, as emphasied by their pointed muzzle and alert expression.

Pomeranians are social dogs that can become very attached to their pet parents. As a result, they could suffer from separation anxiety.

These Spitz dogs will need around 40 minutes of exercise a day to keep them happy and stimulated.